The road is one of the most important elements of infrastructure. In recent years, loads and speeds on roads have increased. Improvement of road cover requires new technical solutions.
Crushed stone is usually used for road construction. The use of geotextile is an indispensable item in road construction, where there is a clay base, peat, or overmoistened soils. In the absence of driveway fabric, crushed stone is mixed with the soil, resulting in a deformation of the road layer. Driveway fabric separates the layers and prevents mixing of crushed stone backfill with the soil. This allows you to maintain the original thickness of the backfill and significantly increase the bearing capacity of the structure, prevents the destruction of the base.
Geotextile is an economical material that significantly extends the life and service life of asphalt pavements. Geotextile is a reinforcing material that serves as a layer and reduces stress in the area of cracks. Thanks to this, the formation of cracks is slowed down by 3 times.
- Needle-punched geotextile from 200 density to 300, or thermally bonded from 150 density to 200 g/m is used for the construction of roads with average loads and for parking lots of passenger cars.
- 300-400 g/m is used mainly for heavily loaded roads (for trucks, or highways), when building the foundations of nuclear power plants and tank farms.
- Geotextile 450-500 g/m is used for making temporary roads. When constructing temporary roads, the surface is covered with a small layer of crushed stone of a coarse fraction, then geotextile is laid and another layer of crushed stone is laid. This allows trucks to drive to the construction site without difficulty.
Why geosynthetics are so popular?
There are two main reasons why geosynthetics are so popular:
- Economic – the materials can significantly reduce the cost of construction. So, geotextile, the price of which is much lower than natural materials, has become a real standard of road construction works all over the world.
- Environmental – polymeric materials are harmless to the environment, save natural inert materials, reduce the amount of preparatory work.
Types of Geotextile
It is a synthetic material made of 100% synthetic polymers such as polypropylene, polyester, polyester, polyamide, polyethylene. Outwardly the material resembles a glass fleece. Geotextiles are produced in rolls, blocks or plates. According to the production technology should be distinguished the following types:
Geotextile needle-punched thermally bonded nonwoven
It is made by needle-punching method from polypropylene or polyester continuous fibers, which allows to pass water easily both in transverse and longitudinal directions. Due to its structure the driveway fabric has high tensile properties
It is made of polymer filaments of a continuous length, connected with each other by loops or filaments. It is a reliable assistant in the arrangement of drainage. Despite the affordable cost compared to similar products, this product is the least popular due to low durability.
Knit and stitched
Produced from continuous fibers connected together by diagonal, canvas or Panama weave. It is characterized by higher tensile strength, but filtration is only in transverse direction, and the pores are clogged faster by dirt and silt.
Geotextile as the first layer on the subsoil
- Separates the materials of the pavement and the ground. This is especially important when working on sandy and clay soils that are prone to subsidence.
- Helps optimally distribute loads over the entire asphalt surface. This ability of the material makes it possible to reduce the cost of excavation work during construction.
- The drainage function of the geotextile promotes the fastest drainage of water, will prevent washout of the sand layer and cement in the road clothes.
Durable geosynthetics withstands temperature fluctuations from -60°C to +110°C, under the action of loads it can elongate by 45%. It is suitable for construction of roads for various purposes: highways, overpasses, bridges, garden paths, access roads, forest roads and temporary roads. In the latter case, it is possible to reuse the geotextile – for the construction of the road.
When choosing a geotextile it is worth considering its density. The material of medium density – 250 -350 g/m² is suitable for footpaths, roads with light loads, parking lots. Geotextile of a higher density – up to 600 g/m² – is used for laying of pavements for highways, airfields, roads with large vehicles.
This material is reasonable to use in the construction, as well as in the repair of roads of all types. It will reduce the cost of work, will save on expensive materials, will prolong the service life of pavement. On highways, where a layer of geotextile has been provided, ruts and cracks are much less likely to form, even if they are exposed to heavy loads during operation.
Why is driveway fabric the best choice today?
- The unique structure of the material prevents siltation and clogging of pores by particles of soil, sand and dirt. The fibers of the geotextile are arranged in such a way that it easily passes moisture vapor or water, and completely retains solid particles.
- The light weight of geotextiles gives them a significant advantage over their denser and heavier counterparts. The material is easy to assemble, can be cut with a standard knife, and small rolls provide easy transportation and storage.
- The 100% synthetic composition of nonwoven geotextile made of polypropylene and polyester fibers provides chemical inertness, eliminates the rotting of the material in direct contact with moisture, damage by fungus, mold and rodents.
- The high elastic modulus of the geotextile fabric guarantees uniform acceptance and distribution of loads, which means that the reinforcing and separating function is fully performed with relatively small deformations.
- Geotextile prestressing provides high resistance to puncture, tearing and abrasion, as well as considerable stretching before rupture (about 60%). As a result the probability of the geosynthetic web damage during the laying is excluded.
- 30 years of service. Due to the artificial composition and a whole range of high exploitation properties this geosynthetic material can serve for dozens of years without losing its important functions. Using geotextiles is a profitable investment in construction!